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12 Jyotirlinga, Jyotirling or Jyotirlingam 12 jyotirlingas, dwadasa jyitirlinga, Shiva, siva, Somanath, Mallikarjun, Mahakaleshwar, Omkareshwar, Kedarnath, Bhimashankar, Vishwanath, kasi, kashi, varanasi, benares, Tryambakeshwar, Vaidyanath, Nageshwar, Ramesham, Grishneshwar

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yoga
Yoga refers to traditional physical and mental disciplines originating in India, to the goal achieved by those disciplines, and to one of the six orthodox (astika) schools of Hindu philosophy. Major branches of a yoga include Raja Yoga, Karma Yoga, Jnana Yoga, Bhakti Yoga, and Hatha Yoga. Raja Yoga, compiled in the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, and known simply as yoga in the context of Hindu philosophy, is part of the Samkhya tradition. Many other Hindu texts discuss aspects of yoga, including the Vedas, Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, the Hatha Yoga Pradipika, the Shiva Samhita and various Tantras.

The Sanskrit word yoga has many meanings, and is derived from the Sanskrit root yuj, meaning to control, to yoke or to unite. Translations include joining, uniting, union, conjunction, the term yoga is typically associated with Hatha Yoga and its asanas (postures) or as a form of exercise. A practitioner of Yoga is called a Yogi (unisex term) or Yogini (for female).

Yoga is restraining the mind-stuff (Citta) from taking various forms (Vrittis).

Patanjali's writing also became the basis for a system referred to as "Ashtanga Yoga" ("Eight-Limbed Yoga"). This eight-limbed concept derived from the 29th Sutra of the 2nd book, and is a core characteristic of practically every Raja yoga variation taught today.

The Eight Limbs are:

  1. Yama (The five "abstentions"): non-violence, non-lying, non-covetousness, non-sensuality, and non-possessiveness.
  2. Niyama (The five "observances"): purity, contentment, austerity, study, and surrender to god.
  3. Asana: Literally means "seat", and in Patanjali's Sutras refers to the seated position used for meditation.
  4. Pranayama ("Lengthening Prana"): Prana, life force, or vital energy, particularly, the breath, "ayama", to lengthen or extend. Also interpreted as control of prana.
  5. Pratyahara ("Abstraction"): Withdrawal of the sense organs from external objects.
  6. Dharana ("Concentration"): Fixing the attention on a single object.
  7. Dhyana ("Meditation"): Intense contemplation of the nature of the object of meditation.
  8. Samadhi ("Liberation"): merging consciousness with the object of meditation.

 

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